CH. 13

CH. 13

 

■ Females are more likely than males to report depressive symptoms as well as major depressive disorder.

■ Sex differences persist across a variety of cultures but are not observed in some homogenous populations, such as college students and the widowed.

■ The sex difference in depression is related to the onset of depression—not recurrence.

■ There are elevated rates of mental health problems among sexual minorities.

■ Sex differences in depression among clinic populations may be exaggerated to the extent that physicians overdiagnose depression in women and underdiagnose depression in men.

■ Sex differences in depression among community populations may be exaggerated to the extent that men are less willing than women to admit or recognize symptoms of depression.

■ There is some evidence that people respond more negatively to depression in men than in women.

■ It is possible that women and men are equally distressed, but that they manifest distress in different ways. Women may show symptoms of depression, and men may have alcohol problems.

■ Biological factors, including genes and hormones, most certainly contribute to depression but cannot alone explain the sex difference in depression. 


■ Females’ low status in society may lead to lower perceptions of control. A lack of control could contribute to perceptions of helplessness, a precipitant of depression. 


■ It is not the case that men exhibit more problem- focused coping, and women exhibit more emotion- focused coping. Instead, there are specific coping styles related to sex. Women seek support and ruminate in response to stress more than men. 


■ Women’s tendency to ruminate interferes with instrumental behavior, increases access to other negative cognitions, and decreases social support, all of which have been linked to depression.

■ Women may be more likely than men to respond to stressful events by becoming introspective—that is, privately self-conscious, a construct related to rumination.

■ Women are more likely than men to experience relationship events and more vulnerable than men to the negative effects of relationship stressors. It is the latter that is most strongly linked to sex differences in depression.

■ There are multiple aspects of the female gender role. Although communion is not related to depression, un- mitigated communion is.

■ People who score high on unmitigated communion become involved in others’ problems to the neglect of themselves, both of which may increase women’s risk for depression.

■ Aside from unmitigated communion, women are more likely than men to find themselves in the caregiving role. Women report greater caregiver burden than men, increasing their risk of depression.

■ Gender intensification suggests that gender-role norms become salient during adolescence. One reason that girls’ depression may increase during adolescence is that they become aware of the limitations of the female gender role. 


■ A variety of events occur during adolescence—body image changes, challenges to relationships with parents and peers—that may pose a greater risk for depression among girls than boys. 


■ Girls not only have a poorer body image than boys but body image is more strongly related to depression among girls than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to suffer from body objectification, a related cause of depression. 


■ Clear-cut sex differences in adjustment to chronic illness are not apparent. 


■ Gender provides an important framework within which we can understand the issues that women and men with a chronic illness face. 


■ The male gender role is advantageous to the extent a chronic illness is construed as a problem meant to be 
solved, but disadvantageous to the extent it implies weakness and limits men’s feelings of control.

■ The female gender role can facilitate adjustment to chronic illness by providing support resources but can impede adjustment when physical attractiveness and caregiving issues interfere with taking proper care of oneself.

■ There are three major kinds of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Anorexia is the most lethal of the three.

■ Eating disorders tend to emerge during adolescence. 


■ It is during adolescence that girls experience body changes (in particular, an increase in body fat), become dissatisfied with their bodies, and become increasingly concerned with their appearance and how others view them. During adolescence, girls also recognize limiting factors associated with the female gender role. 


■ Contributing factors to eating disorders include genes, gender roles, psychological factors (e.g., need for control and perfectionism), and the social environment. 


■ Media exposure has been implicated in eating disorders for both women and men. Experimental studies have shown that media exposure affects girls’ views of their bodies. 


■ Men commit suicide more than women. This sex difference appears across the life span and persists across cultures.

■ Women attempt suicide more than men.

■ This gender paradox is partly explained by methodological issues. Suicide in women may be underestimated because women are more likely to use ambiguous methods (e.g., overdose of pills) than men, which may be misclassified as accidents. Men’s suicide attempts may be underestimated because men are less likely than women to admit to a failed suicide attempt.

■ Suicide in both women and men—adults and adolescents—is likely to be associated with other mental health problems, such as depression and substance abuse.

■ Among adults, marital breakup and unemployment are linked to suicide—especially in men.

■ Among both adolescents and adults, relationship difficulties have been linked to suicide.

 

Anorexia nervosa—Eating disorder characterized by the continual pursuit of thinness, a distorted body image, and refusal to maintain a weight that is more than 85% of what is considered normal for the person’s age and height.


Binge eating disorder—Eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating without purging or fasting.

Body objectification—The experience of one’s body being treated as an object to be evaluated and used by others.


Bulimia nervosa—Eating disorder characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by purging via vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, enemas, and/or exercising.

Clinical depression—Another name for major depressive disorder, the critical feature of which is that the person must have experienced a set of depressive symptoms for a period no shorter than two weeks.

Different cause theory—Suggestion that there are different causes of girls’ and boys’ depression and the cause of girls’ depression increases during adolescence.

Differential exposure—Idea that men and women are exposed to a different number of or kinds of stressors.

Differential item functioning—Idea that some items are more likely to be associated with a trait, such as depression, among men versus women.

Differential vulnerability—Idea that certain stressors are more strongly linked to distress in one sex than the other.

Emotion-focused coping—Approach to stressful situations in which individuals attempt to accommodate themselves to the stressor.

Gender intensification—Gender roles becoming salient during adolescence, causing boys and girls to adhere more strongly to these roles.

Interactive theory—Suggestion that being female always poses a risk for depression and the events of adolescence activate that risk.

Learned helplessness—Learning that our actions are independent of outcomes, which then leads us to stop responding (give up) in other situations.


Precipitating factors—Environmental events that trigger the emergence of a disorder (e.g., depression).

Problem-focused coping—Approach to stressful situations in which we attempt to alter the stressor itself.

Psychological reactance—Reaction to a perceived threat to control that involves doing the opposite of what is demanded.

Relative coping—Likelihood that men or women use one coping strategy compared to another strategy.


Same cause theory—Suggestion that the same factor could cause depression in both men and women, but the factor increases during adolescence only for girls.

Susceptibility factors—Innate, usually biological, factors that place one group
 (e.g., women) at greater risk for a disorder (e.g., depression) than another group. 

MODULES

TASTE & SENSATION

 

If you can taste it as bitter, you’re a supertaster. Only 1 person in 4 is a supertaster.

 

The fungiform pupilli are little sprouts on the tongue. Each one of them has about 12 taste buds with nerve fibers connected to the brain. Some of the fibers sense taste but most of them don’t sense anything but pain. A supertaster would feel way more pain for eating a hot pepper than a nontaster because he has way more pain fibers.

 

Chili peppers mixed with honey were used to treat sores in the month because they’re really good analgesics.

 

The pain in the aids man’s foot was deep in his foot. The nerves present in the mouth that signal heat and pain are also present in the foot & are interacted in the same way. The numbed his feet and put capsaicin on it (which is beyond strong). The molecule in our nerves that hot peppers activates that causes the painful burn sits like a tramp door on the surface of the pain fiber. Capsaicin unlocks the door, allowing Ca+ ions to rush in, firing off the pain message to the brain. The same reaction comes with hot water. The function of the trap doors may have originally been to signal heat and that we have to be careful. Hot peppers fool our cells into thinking they’re on fire and thus have the same effect.

 

 

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

 

Neuromuscular junction:

To activate skeletal muscle, the CSN initiates an action potential that travels down the spinal cord to the motor neurons. As the nerve fiber branches, the action potential travels down each branch. Each nerve fiber branches many times & stimulates several skeletal muscle fibers. The union of the axon and muscle fibers called the neuromuscular junction. On the microscopic level, each branch of the neuron has a terminal that invaginates the muscle fiber, while remaining outside the vaginate muscle fiber membrane. The action potential arrives at the axon terminal. In the terminal, the AP causes the release of acetylcholine from the synaptic vesicles in the space between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber, called the synaptic cleft. In the synaptic cleft, the acetylcholine binds with the receptor site on the fiber membrane, which opens a chemically gated ion channel. Sodium the rushes through the ion channel into the muscle fiber, causing an AP to form on the fiber membrane. The AP spreads along the muscle fiber. As more nerve branches activate additional fibers, the aP spreads over the entire muscle. Upon activation, the muscle contracts.

 

Mirror neurons:

Neurons that fire every time we watch OR imitate an action. Autistic children are thought to have deficits in the mirror neurons. They don’t show the same brain activity as normal people.

 

Movement disorders:

Both Huntington’s and Parkinson’s affect the basal ganglia. Biggest difference is that Huntington’s is a genetic disease & Parkinson’s can have genetic factors but is not 100% genetic.

 

Parkinson's occurs as result of a loss of nerve cells in the part of the brain known as the substantia nigra. These cells are responsible for producing a chemical known as dopamine, which allows messages to be sent to the parts of the brain that co-ordinate movement. With the depletion of dopamine-producing cells, these parts of the brain are unable to function normally. 

 

 

TEMPERATURE REGULATION, THIRST AND HUNGER

 

Body temperature regulation:

Body’s normal temperature is between 35-37 and rises after eating or exercise. It’s the lowest in the morning & highest in late evening. Temperature homeostasis (regulation) within the body is the balance between heat input & heat output. Heat input can come from 2 ways: internally (metabolism + muscle contraction) & externally (conduction (hot object touching your body) + radiation).

Heat output comes in 4 ways: conduction (cold object touching you = body emits heat out), convective process (hot air rising from ground = body emits heat), radiation (heat being emitted and absorbed) & evaporation (water evaporates from body & brings heat with it).

 

Thermoneutral zone = 27-30 degrees outside, as hot as body temperature. Humans are naturally tropical animals and we actually have a harder time psychologically adapting to cold weather.

 

The thermoregulatory center is situated in the hypothalamus in the brain & it tries to keep internal temperature balance. There’s also thermo receptors (central receptors) in the hypothalamus that notice changes inside the body & there’s thermo receptors in the skin (peripheral receptors) that notice changes on the outside of the body.

 

If the peripheral thermal receptors sense changes in temperature it will send these signals to the thermoregulatory center in the hypothalamus. This information will then get processed & an appropriate response will be sent to the body to keep the internal temperature stable, an autonomic response. If it’s responding to cold weather, the body will try to retain heat by shivering or using brown fat that can cause heat production. If it’s responding to hot weather, it will need to lose heat. It will do this by dilating the blood vessels (vasodilation) which increases heat loss, or by sweating.  

 

Thirst motivation/osmoregulation:

Hypotonic: low concentration of salt & high on water --> hypertonic: high concentration of salt in osmosis. Water always flows to a hypertonic. When the cells shrink it sends a signal to the body to drink.

The part of the hypothalamus that detects thirst & shit is called the Lateral preoptic area. Blood flows right past it & it detects the concentration of the fluid in the blood. They’re going to send a signal to the Posterior pituitary gland to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH): vasopressin, that will tell the kidneys to bring water back in because you have a lot of salt in your body. Vasopressin tells the brain to make you drink. Kidney releases Renin that causes the release of Angiotensin which tells the kidney to not release water into the bladder but to bring it back in the blood. Angiotensin also goes to the brain to signal thirst. A lot of angiotensin will cause thirst. 

biopsy quiz 8 & 10

MOVEMENT

 

1.    You are going home one night when you drive through a sobriety checkpoint. The policeman asks you to get out of the car, holds one finger up in front of your face and asks you to follow his finger with your eyes only. What is he doing?

- He is checking to see if your cerebellum is functioning properly because the cerebellum is one of the first areas to be affected by alcohol.

 

2.    Motor neurons are:

- More numerous in spinal segments serving the arms & legs.

 

3.    According to PET scans, which of the following areas are the first to show activity when a voluntary movement is initiated?

- The parietal lobes & prefrontal cortex.

 

4.    Neurons controlling voluntary movement of the head are located in the:

- Dorsal portions of primary motor cortex.

 

5.    What is the function of striated muscles?

- Move the heart and the bones.

 

6.    In which of the following locations would we expect to find the greatest density of muscle spindles?

- The hands.

 

7.    One of the actions of the basal ganglia is the:

- Inhibition of the thalamus.

 

8.    The rubrospinal tract originates in the:

- Red nucleus.

 

9.    The lower gravity experienced by astronauts:

- Decreases muscle mass.

 

10. Neurons that fire when an organism either carries out ta movement or observes an organism carrying out the same movement are known as what?

- Mirror neurons.

 

11. Degeneration of the neurons of the substantia nigra is implicated in:

- Parkinson’s disease.

 

12. Drinking coffee is correlated with lower rates of:

- Parkinson’s disease.

 

13. Genetics may predispose people to developing _____ Parkinson’s disease.

- early onset, but not late-onset

 

14. What happens to the rate of firing in motor neurons as we age?

- Firing rates decrease, leading to slower and weaker muscle contractions.

 

15. The Babinski sign occurs when:

- Stroking the sole of the foot causes the toes to spread.

 

16. A muscle relaxes after contracting when

- Calcium is taken up by internal organelles.

 

17. Extrafusal muscle fibers:

- Are responsible for muscle contraction.

 

18. Ventromedial pathways provide:

- Automatic control of the neck and torso.

 

19. The cell bodies of alpha motor neurons are located ______ & each one enervates _____.

- In the spinal cord; either fast or slow twitch fibers, but not both

 

20. Quadriplegia usually results from:

- Spinal cord damage at the cervical level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

 

1.    Mark is in a long-term, monogamous relationship, Karl is single & dates women occasionally, and Stephen has 3 girlfriends who all believe that he is monogamous. It is most likely that:

- Stephen has the highest testosterone levels, followed by Karl, and then Mark.

 

2.    Release of FSH

- Promotes the maturation of follicles.

 

3.    Emergency contraception (morning-after-pills) involves a:

- Series of normal oral contraception pills.

 

4.    When viewing photographs of people we love, as opposed to those of people we like, areas of our brains associated with:

- Reward become more active, but areas associated with social judgment become less active.

 

5.    Over the past 150 years in the United States, the average age at which puberty begins has:

- Decreased.

 

6.    Intersex refers to situations in which

- Both male and female elements occur in the same fetus.

 

7.    According to evolutionary psychology, the best reproductive strategy for

- Women is to be selective and for men to be promiscuous.

 

8.    The quantity of androgens produces by females is about ___ % of the quantity produced by males.

- 10

 

9.    Simon LeVay argued that human male sexual orientation is correlated with the size of the

- INAH-3.

 

10. Because Samantha is being treated for a disease that affects her adrenal glands, she is likely to experience:

- A reduction in sexual interest, because the adrenal glands supply about half of a woman’s testosterone.

 

11. Testosterone levels in men appear to fluctuate in response to:

- Competition

 

12. In the Norplant method of birth control, _______ is released over a period of six months.

- Progestin

 

13. Women may be attracted by body scents that reflect a man’s

- Immune system.

 

14. A male is more likely to be homosexual if he:

- Has several older brothers.

 

15. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) are released in:

- Both males and females.

 

16. Women’s performance on tests of verbal and manual dexterity appear to be

- Best when estrogen levels are high.

 

17. Females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

- Are more likely to engage in bisexual and lesbian behavior than typical females.

 

18. In adult humans

- Females maintain remnants of the Wolffian system, but the Müllerian system completely degenerates in males.

 

19. The hypothalamus controls the release of sex hormones by secreting

- GnHR

 

20. Men viewing the faces of beautiful women showed activation of the

- Nucleus accumbens

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